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Description

The 90+ Study was initiated in 2003 to study the oldest-old, the fastest growing age group in the United States. The 90+ Study is one of the largest studies of the oldest-old in the world. More than 1,600 people have enrolled. Initial participants in The 90+ Study were once members of The Leisure World Cohort Study (LWCS), which was started in 1981. The 90+ sample set was genotyped at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia using the Illumina Infinium GSAMD-24v2-0_20024620_A1 BeadChip which captures genotype data on 759,993 genomic SNPs. The standard Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC) quality control pipeline (Naj et al. 2011) was applied to this GWAS dataset. The first release (February 4, 2021) includes quality controlled GWAS data on 268 participants from the 90+ cohort. It also includes minimal phenotypes provided by the 90+ Study and covariates provided by the Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC). The final QC’d dataset contains 733,861 SNPs and 268 samples. Additional samples are available from NCRAD on their website: https://www.ncrad.org/accessing_data.html.

Sample Summary per Data Type

Sample SetAccessionData TypeNumber of Samples
90+ GWAS GSA snd10026GWAS268

Available Filesets

NameAccessionLatest ReleaseDescription
90+ Studyfsa000019NG00104.v1GWAS Data, Phenotypes, etc.

View the File Manifest for a full list of files released in this dataset.

The 90+ sample set was genotyped at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia using the Illumina Infinium GSAMD-24v2-0_20024620_A1 BeadChip which captures genotype data on 759,993 genomic SNPs. The standard Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC) quality control pipeline (Naj et al. 2011) was applied to this GWAS dataset. The final QC'd dataset contains 733,861 SNPs and 268 samples.

Sample SetAccession NumberNumber of Subjects
90+ GWAS GSA snd10026268
Consent LevelNumber of Subjects
GRU-IRB-PUB268

Visit the Data Use Limitations page for definitions of the consent levels above.

Total number of approved DARs: 8
  • Investigator:
    Chen, Jingchun
    Institution:
    University of Nevada, Las Vegas
    Project Title:
    Classification of Alzheimer’s disease with Genetic Data and Artificial Intelligence
    Date of Approval:
    March 28, 2023
    Request status:
    Approved
    Research use statements:
    Show statements
    Technical Research Use Statement:
    Alzheimer's disease(AD) is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for 60% to 80% of cases that affect over six million people in the United States. The disease gradually progresses from mild cognitive impairment(MCI) to dementia, which takes more than a decade. Identifying individuals who have a high risk of AD earlier is essential for AD prevention and intervention. As the heritability of AD is high(up to 79%), genetic data should be powerful to identify individuals at high risk. Indeed, polygenic risk score (PRS), designed to estimate individual genetic liability by integrating large GWAS summary statistics and individual genotype data, has been shown to be promising for AD risk prediction(AUCs up to 84%). However, the prediction accuracy using a single PRS is still not sufficient for MCI and AD classification in clinical practice. We hypothesize that convolution neural network(CNN) models can improve the classification of AD and MCI by multiple integrating PRSs from multiple traits, multi-omics data (genotyping data, scRNA-seq), clinical data, and imaging data. The objective is to develop advanced AI algorithms and build data-driven models for disease risk assessment, earlier identifying individuals with high risk for MCI and AD. Our long-term goal is to develop and validate a prediction model that can be translated into clinical practice. Our CNN model has recently shown an improved performance for AD with PRSs from multiple traits(AUC 92.4%). We want to extend our approach to predicting AD and MCI in different ethnic groups and validate the results with independent datasets. To this end, we would like to apply for multi-omics data in NG00067.v9 from https://dss.niagads.org/datasets/ng00067/. With an extensive experience in genetic studies on complex disorders and disease modeling, we are confident that we will achieve the specified goals and promote the integration of genetic data with AI algorithms, facilitating data-driven, personalized care of AD. We expect to finish this study within 2 years with publication and grant application. We have IRB approval and will follow the rules for data sharing and acknowledgment.
    Non-Technical Research Use Statement:
    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, that usually develops from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. There is currently no treatment to slow the progression of this disorder. But earlier identification of the individuals with higher risk maybe critical to prevent the disease. We propose a new approach to create models for classification of AD and MCI with artificial intelligence and genetic data. This study will have a significant value in personalized medicine for AD risk assessment, classification, and earlier intervention.We don’t have the planned collaboration with researchers outside Cleveland Clinic in the current analytic plans.
  • Investigator:
    Cruchaga, Carlos
    Institution:
    Washington University School of Medicine
    Project Title:
    The Familial Alzheimer Sequencing (FASe) Project
    Date of Approval:
    March 28, 2023
    Request status:
    Approved
    Research use statements:
    Show statements
    Technical Research Use Statement:
    The goal of this study is to identify new genes and mutations that cause or increase risk for Alzheimer disease (AD), as well as protective factors. Individuals and families were selected from the Knight-ADRC (Washington University) and the NIA-LOAD study. Only families with at least three first-degree affected individuals were included. Families with pathogenic variants in the known AD or FTD genes, or in which APOE4 segregated with disease were excluded. At least two cases and one control were selected per family. Cases had an age at onset (AAO) after 65 yo and controls had a larger age at last assessment than the latest AAO within the family. Whole exome (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) was generated for 1,235 individuals (285 families) that together with data from our collaborators and the ADSP family-based cohort (3,449 individuals and 757 families) will provide enough statistical power to identify new genes for AD. Dr. Tanzi (Harvard Medical School) will provide WGS from 400 families from the NIMH Alzheimer disease genetics initiative study. We will perform single variant and gene-based analyses to identify genes and variants that increase risk for disease in AD families. Single variant analysis will consist of a combination of association and segregation analyses. We will run family-based gene-based methods to identify genes that show and overall enrichment of variants in AD cases. We will also look for protective and modifier variants. To do this we will identify families loaded with AD cases, that also include individuals with a high burden of known risk variants but that do not develop the disease (escapees). We will use the sequence data and the family structure to identify variants that segregate with the escapee phenotype. The most promising variants and genes will be replicated in independent datasets (ADSP case-control, ADNI, Knight-ADRC, NIA-LOAD ). We will perform single variant and gene-based analyses to replicate the initial findings, and survival analysis to replicate the protective variants. We will select the most promising variants/genes for functional studies
    Non-Technical Research Use Statement:
    Family-based approaches led to the identification of disease-causing Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) variants in the genes encoding APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2. The identification of these genes led to the A?-cascade hypothesis and to the development of drugs that target this pathway. Recently, we have identified rare coding variants in TREM2, ABCA7, PLD3 and SORL1 with large effect sizes for risk for AD, confirming that rare coding variants play a role in the etiology of AD. In this proposal, we will identify rare risk and protective alleles using sequence data from families densely affected by AD. We hypothesize that these families are enriched for genetic risk factors. We already have sequence data from 695 families (2,462 individuals), that combined with the ADSP and the NIMH dataset will lead to a dataset of more than 1,042 families (4,684 individuals). Our preliminary results support the flexibility of this approach and strongly suggest that protective and risk variants with large effect size will be found, which will lead to a better understanding of the biology of the disease.
  • Investigator:
    Farrer, Lindsay
    Institution:
    Boston University
    Project Title:
    ADSP Data Analysis
    Date of Approval:
    January 22, 2024
    Request status:
    Approved
    Research use statements:
    Show statements
    Technical Research Use Statement:
    As part of the Collaborative for Alzheimer's Disease genetics REsearch (CADRE: NIA grant U01-AG058654), we plan to analyze whole exome and whole genome sequence data generated from subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and elderly normal controls. These data will be generated by the National Human Genome Institute Large-Scale Sequence Program. The goal of the planned analyses is to identify genes that have alleles that protect against or increase susceptibility to AD. We will evaluate variants detected in the sequence data for association with AD to identify protective and susceptibility alleles using the whole exome case-control data. We will also evaluate sequence data from multiplex AD families to identify variants associated with AD risk and protection, and evaluate variant co-segregation with AD. The family data will be whole genome data. The family-based data will be used to inform the cases control analysis and visa versa. We also will focus on structural variants (insertion-deletions, copy number variants, and chromosomal rearrangements). Evaluation of structural variants will involve both whole genome and whole exome data. Structural variants will be analyzed with single nucelotide variants detected and analyzed in the case-control and family-based data.
    Non-Technical Research Use Statement:
    We are attempting to identify all the inherited elements that contribute to Alzheimer's disease risk. To do this we will analyze DNA sequence data from subjects with Alzheimer's disease and elderly subjects who are cognitively normal. The sequence data from these 2 groups will be compared to identify differences that contribute to the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease of that protect against Alzheimer's disease. These DNA differences can be at a single site in the genetic code, or can span multiple sites, changing the copy number of DNA sequences. Both types of genetic variants will be examined.
  • Investigator:
    Pendergrass, Rion
    Institution:
    Genentech
    Project Title:
    Genetic Analyses Using Data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP) and related studies
    Date of Approval:
    August 30, 2023
    Request status:
    Approved
    Research use statements:
    Show statements
    Technical Research Use Statement:
    The purpose of our study is to identify novel genetic factors associated with Alzheimer’s Disease, corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). This includes identifying genetic factors associated with the risk of these conditions, as well as genetic risk factors associated with age-at-onset (AAO) for these conditions. We will also evaluate genetic associations with sub-phenotypes individuals have within these broad disease categories, such as their Braak staging results which provide insights into the level of severity of Alzheimer’s. Thus we are requesting access to the set of genomic Whole Exome and Whole Genome Sequences (WES and WGS) have just been released through the National Institute on Aging Genetics of Alzheimer’s Disease Data Storage Site (DSS NIAGADS). The findings from our genetic association testing have the potential for identification of new therapeutic targets for Alzheimer's Disease, CBD, and PSP. The findings from our studies also have the potential for identification of genetic and phenotypic biomarkers that will be beneficial for subsetting patients in new ways. We will use standard genetic epidemiological methods to handle the WGS and WES data. We will also analyze cell type-specific expression differences in AD to identify biomarkers and disease pathways using standard gene expression analysis methods currently in use. We will also use other multi-omic and other genetic data that has now become available to further understand genetic association results we have found in AD.All data will remain anonymized and securely stored, and only those listed on our application and their staff will have access to these data. We will not share any of the individual level data outside of Genentech nor beyond the researchers on our application. We will adhere to all data use agreement stipulations through the DSS NIAGADS. We have a secure computational environment called Rosalind within Genentech where we will use these data. We have IT security staff that constantly monitor all our research computing, assuring safety and privacy of all of our stored data. We will not collaborate with researchers at other institutions.
    Non-Technical Research Use Statement:
    Genetic variation and gene expression data allows us to understand more of the genetic contribution to risk and protection from diseases such as Alzheimer’s and dementia. This information also allows us to identify important biological contributors to disease for developing effective treatment strategies, and identifying groups of individuals that would benefit most from new treatments. Our exploration of this relationship between genotype, disease traits, gene expression, and outcomes, through these datasets will allow us to pursue important new findings for disease treatment.
  • Investigator:
    Pericak-Vance, Margaret
    Institution:
    University of Miami
    Project Title:
    Collaboration on Alzheimer Disease Research
    Date of Approval:
    May 30, 2023
    Request status:
    Approved
    Research use statements:
    Show statements
    Technical Research Use Statement:
    We plan to analyze GWAS, whole exome and whole genome sequence data generated from subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and elderly normal controls. The goal of the planned analyses is to identify genes that have alleles that protect against or increase susceptibility to AD. We will evaluate variants detected in the sequence data for association with AD to identify protective and susceptibility alleles using the whole exome and whole genome case-control data. We will also evaluate sequence data from multiplex AD families to identify variants associated with AD risk and protection, and evaluate variant co-segregation with AD. The family data will be whole genome data. The family-based data will be used to inform the cases control analysis and visa versa. We also will focus on structural variants (insertion-deletions, copy number variants, and chromosomal rearrangements). Evaluation of structural variants will involve both whole genome and whole exome data. Structural variants will be analyzed with single nucelotide variants detected and analyzed in the case-control and family-based data
    Non-Technical Research Use Statement:
    We are attempting to identify all the inherited elements that contribute to Alzheimer's disease risk. To do this we will analyze DNA sequence data from subjects with Alzheimer's disease and elderly subjects who are cognitively normal. The sequence data from these 2 groups will be compared to identify differences that contribute to the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease of that protect against Alzheimer's disease. These DNA differences can be at a single site in the genetic code, or can span multiple sites, changing the copy number of DNA sequences. Both types of genetic variants will be examined.
  • Investigator:
    Roussos, Panagiotis
    Institution:
    Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
    Project Title:
    Higher Order Chromatin and Genetic Risk for Alzheimer's Disease
    Date of Approval:
    August 16, 2023
    Request status:
    Approved
    Research use statements:
    Show statements
    Technical Research Use Statement:
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and is characterized by cognitive impairment and progressive neurodegeneration. Genome-wide association studies of AD have identified more than 70 risk loci; however, a major challenge in the field is that the majority of these risk factors are harbored within non-coding regions where their impact on AD pathogenesis has been difficult to establish. Therefore, the molecular basis of AD development and progression remains elusive and, so far, reliable treatments have not been found. The overarching goal of this proposal is to examine and validate AD-related changes on chromatin accessibility and the 3D genome at the single cell level. Based on recent data from our group and others, we hypothesize that genotype-phenotype associations in AD are causally mediated by cell type-specific alterations in the regulatory mechanisms of gene expression. To test our hypothesis, we propose the following Specific Aims: (1) perform multimodal (i.e., within cell) profiling of the chromatin accessibility and transcriptome at the single cell level to identify cell type-specific AD-related changes on the 3D genome; (2) fine-map AD risk loci to identify causal variants, regulatory regions and genes; (3) functionally validate putative causal variants and regulatory sequences using novel approaches that combine massively parallel reporter assays, CRISPR and single cell assays in neurons and microglia derived from induced pluripotent stem cells; and (4) develop and maintain a community workspace that provides for the rapid dissemination and open evaluation of data, analyses, and outcomes. Overall, our multidisciplinary computational and experimental approach will provide a compendium of functionally and causally validated AD risk loci that has the potential to lead to new insights and avenues for therapeutic development.
    Non-Technical Research Use Statement:
    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) affects half the US population over the age of 85 and despite decades of research, reliable treatments for AD have not been found. The overarching goal of our proposal is to generate multiscale genomics (gene expression and epigenome regulation) data at the single cell level and perform fine mapping to detect and validate causal variants, transcripts and regulatory sequences in AD. The proposed work will bridge the gap in understanding the link among the effects of risk variants on enhancer activity and transcript expression, thus illuminating AD molecular mechanisms and providing new targets for future therapeutic development.
  • Investigator:
    Zhao, Jinying
    Institution:
    University of Florida
    Project Title:
    Identifying novel biomarkers for human complex diseases using an integrated multi-omics approach
    Date of Approval:
    November 21, 2023
    Request status:
    Approved
    Research use statements:
    Show statements
    Technical Research Use Statement:
    GWAS, WES and WGS have identified many genes associated with Alzheimer’s Dementia (AD) and its related traits. However, the identified genes thus far collectively explain only a small proportion of disease heritability, suggesting that more genes remained to be identified. Moreover, there is a clear gender and ethnic disparity for AD susceptibility, but little research has been done to identify gender- and ethnic-specific variants associated with AD. Of the many challenges for deciphering AD pathology, lacking of efficient and power statistical methods for genetic association mapping and causal inference represents a major bottleneck. To tackle this challenge, we have developed a set of novel statistical and bioinformatics approaches for genetic association mapping and multi-omics causation inference in large-scale ethnicity-specific epidemiological studies. The goal of this project is to leverage the multi-omics and clinical data archived by the ADSP, ADNI, ADGC as well as other AD-related data repositories to identify novel genes and molecular markers for AD. Specifically, we will (1) validate our novel methods for identifying novel risk and protective genomic variants and multi-omics causal pathways of AD; (2) identify novel ethnicity- and gender-specific genes and molecular causal pathways of AD. We will share our results, statistical methods and computational software with the scientific community.
    Non-Technical Research Use Statement:
    Although many genes have been associated with Alzheimer’s Dementia (AD), these genes altogether explain only a small fraction of disease etiology, suggesting more genes remained to be identified. Of the many challenges for deciphering AD pathology, lacking of power statistical methods represents a major bottleneck. To tackle this challenge, we have developed a set of novel statistical and bioinformatics approaches for genetic association mapping and multi-omics causation inference in large-scale ethnicity-specific epidemiological studies. The goal of this project is to leverage the rich genetic and other omic data along with clinical data archived by the ADSP, ADNI, ADGC as well as other AD-related data repositories to identify novel genes and molecular markers for AD. Such results will enhance our understanding of AD pathogenesis and may also serve as biomarkers for early diagnosis and therapeutic targets.
  • Investigator:
    Zhi, Degui
    Institution:
    University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
    Project Title:
    Genetics of deep-learning-derived neuroimaging endophenotypes for Alzheimer's Disease
    Date of Approval:
    October 2, 2023
    Request status:
    Approved
    Research use statements:
    Show statements
    Technical Research Use Statement:
    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) affects 5.6 million Americans over the age of 65 and exacts tremendous and increasing demands on patients, caregivers, and healthcare resources. Our current understanding of the biology and pathophysiology of AD is still limited, hindering advances in the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies. Existing genetic studies of AD have some success but these explain only a fraction of the overall disease risk, suggesting opportunities for additional discoveries. The proposed project will leverage existing neuroimaging and genetic data resources from the UK Biobank, the Alzheimer’s Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP), the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), and the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium, and will be conducted by a multidisciplinary team of investigators. We will derive AD endophenotypes from neuroimaging data in the UK Biobank using deep learning (DL). We will identify novel genetic loci associated with DL-derived imaging endophenotypes and optimize the co-heritability of these endophenotypes with AD-related phenotypes using UK Biobank genetic data. We will leverage resources and collaborations with AD Consortia and the power of DL-derived neuroimaging endophenotypes to identify novel genes for Alzheimer’s Disease and AD-related traits. Also, we will develop DL-based neuroimaging harmonization and imputation methods and distribute implementation software to the research community. We expect to discover new genes relevant to AD which may leads to understanding of molecular basis of AD and potential new treatment.
    Non-Technical Research Use Statement:
    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) exacts a tremendous burden on patients, caregivers, and healthcare resources. Our current understanding of the biology of AD is still limited, hindering advances in the development of treatment and prevention. Existing genetic studies of AD have some success but more studies are needed. The proposed project will leverage existing neuroimaging and genetic data resources from the UK Biobank, the Alzheimer’s Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP) and other consortia and will be conducted by a multidisciplinary team of investigators. We will derive new AD relevant intermediate phenotypes from neuroimaging data using deep learning (DL), an AI approach. We will identify novel genetic loci associated with these phenotypes. Also, we will develop imaging harmonization and imputation methods and distribute implementation software to the research community. We expect to discover new genes relevant to AD which may leads to understanding of molecular basis of AD and potential new treatment.

Acknowledgment statement for any data distributed by NIAGADS:

Data for this study were prepared, archived, and distributed by the National Institute on Aging Alzheimer’s Disease Data Storage Site (NIAGADS) at the University of Pennsylvania (U24-AG041689), funded by the National Institute on Aging.

Use the study-specific acknowledgement statements below (as applicable):

For investigators using any data from this dataset:

Please cite/reference the use of NIAGADS data by including the accession NG00104.

For investigators using Clinical and Pathological Studies in the Oldest Old (90+ Study) (sa000020) data:

The 90+ Study receives support through a National Institute on Aging (NIA) grant R01AG21055. We thank the staff and investigators of the study as well as the participants and their families, whose help and participation made this work possible.

Quality control procedures and data preparation on the GWAS was conducted by the Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC) (UO1AG032984) and the NIA Genetics of Alzheimer’s Disease Storage Site (NIAGADS) (U24-AG041689), both funded by NIA.

Samples from the National Centralized Repository for Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias (NCRAD), which receives government support under a cooperative agreement grant (U24 AG021886) awarded by the National Institute on Aging (NIA), were used in this study.

  • Corrada MM, Brookmeyer R, Paganini-Hill A, Berlau D, Kawas CH. Dementia incidence continues to increase with age in the oldest-old: The 90+ Study. Ann Neurol. 2010 Jan. doi: 10.1002/ana.21915 PubMed link
  • Corrada MM, Berlau DJ, Kawas CH. A population-based clinicopathological study in the oldest-old: the 90+ study. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2012 Jul. doi: 10.2174/156720512801322537 PubMed link
  • Corrada MM, Paganini-Hill A, Berlau DJ, Kawas CH. Apolipoprotein E genotype, dementia, and mortality in the oldest old: The 90+ Study. Alzheimers Dement. 2013 Jan. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2011.12.004 PubMed link